*,«Tv NORTH CAROLINA SYMPHONY TEACHERS HANDBOOK 1982-1983 50th ANNIVERSARY SEASON CHAMBER ORCHESTRA DEDICATION T o ADELINE DENHAM McCALL who has served the North Carolina Symphony with devotion for 50 years and whose love of music and enthusiasm for teaching have touched millions of lives, we respectfully dedicate this publication. NORTH CAROLINA SYMPHONY CHAMBER ORCHESTRA TEACHERS HANDBOOK 1982-83 JACKSON PARKHURST, EDITOR **************************************** TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 2 STATE OF THE ART: MUSIC IN THE CLASSROOM by Barbara Bair 3 "OVERTURE" from MUSIC FOR THE ROYAL FIREWORKS by G. F. Handel 7 THE COMPOSER 7 THE MUSIC 7 THE CLASSROOM by Elaine Sills 8 EINE KLEINE NACHTMUSIK , FIRST MOVEMENT by W. A. Mozart 9 THE COMPOSER 9 THE MUSIC 9 THE CLASSROOM by Fran McCachern 10 SYMPHONY No. 4 ("ITALIAN"), FOURTH MOVEMENT by Felix Mendelssohn 11 THE COMPOSER 11 THE MUSIC 11 THE CLASSROOM by Fran McCachern 12 MAPLE LEAF RAG by Scott Joplin 15 THE COMPOSER 15 THE MUSIC 15 THE CLASSROOM by Susan B. Balog 15 "TROIKA" from LIEUTENANT KIJE SUITE by Sergei Prokofiev 18 THE COMPOSER 18 THE MUSIC 18 THE CLASSROOM by Susan Marion 18 "LES TOREADORES" and " DANSE BOHEME " from CARMEN SUITES X & II by Georges Bizet THE COMPOSER 22 THE MUSIC 22 THE CLASSROOM by Marilyn Burris 23 THE SONGS AND RHYTHM SCORE "The Old North State" 27 "It's a Small World" 27 RHYTHM SCORE: "TROIKA" 27 BIOGRAPHIES 27 NOTES 28 **************************************** North Carol ina Symphony Chamber Orchestra Teachers Handbook @ 1982 by The North Carolina Symphony Society, Inc. Reproduction of any part of this book without written permission is strictly forbidden. North Carolina Symphony P. 0. Box 28026 Raleigh, North Carolina 27611 Jackson Parkhurst, Director of Education INTRODUCTION May 14, 1982 marked the 50th Anniversary of the first North Carolina Symphony concert. The Symphony has had a long and distinguished career of bringing great orchestral music to the people of North Carolina, and we are ex- tremely proud to have reached this milestone in our history. We are equally proud to welcome two new members to the North Carolina Symphony staff. Gerhardt Zimmermann is our new Artistic Director/Conductor, and Tom McGuire be- came Executive Director in March, 1982. Both men believe in the educational mission of the North Carolina Symphony and are dedicated to it. This year is also a year of change for the Symphony Education Program. This year we are trying a new approach to the publications used in preparation for the North Carolina Symphony Children's Concerts. The new title of the booklet for students is Your North Carolina Symphony Book. The one for teachers is The North Carolina Symphony Teachers Handbook. I asked my friend, Suzanne Newton*, to join me in writing Your North Carolina Symphony Book to assure that it would be readable for elementary age students. Included in it is a section on the North Carolina Symphony, the instruments of the orchestra, and notes about the music on the program. It also contains two songs the children will sing and play at the concert and a rhythm score by Associate Conductor Jim Ogle. In the Teachers Handbook I have asked music teachers from across the state to share their ideas on ways to teach the music on this year's program. These sections are meant to be suggestions only. I want to emphasize that in teaching the music there is no substitute for the music, itself, as the primary source. I am also pleased to be able to include an article by Barbara Bair on the state of the art in the music classroom. Reading it has reminded me of the mission of the North Carolina Symphony Education Program. Certainly, we want to educate, but not as an end in itself. The facts of a composer's life or the number of times that a theme is repeated are interesting and important, but they don't make us want to dance. They don't make us want to sing and clap our hands and say, "I like that]" Only the music can do that. It is very easy today to find reasons not to dance and sing and clap one's hands. Problems abound and difficulties arise by the score. But beneath the indifference, the preoccupation, and even the cynicism of daily life, the desire exists in us all to be excited. Not just in a sensational way that is so easy with today's gadgets and gimmicks, but in a more satisfying and secure way that we all know and believe that music can give. It is that exclamation, "I like that!" that I want from e^ery child who hears the North Carolina Symphony. If we with your help and hard work, can elicit that response, we have done a service for the child, the community, and, I believe, the world. It cannot be our responsibility alone. We have the right to seek and expect the aid of parents, classroom teachers, principals, legis- lators, and all those who are in a position to help. We are entrusted with the great gift of music and the responsibility of bringing it to life for our children, It is also a privilege, because we know the joy it can bring, and it is joy that can last a lifetime. Jackson Parkhurst Director of Education and Assistant Conductor *Suzanne Newton is the author of a number of books for young people, four of which have received the American Association of University Women Award, North Carolina's highest award for juvenile fiction. STATE OF THE ART: MUSIC IN THE CLASSROOM Barbara Bair The purpose of this article is to share what this author has observed as the kind and quality of music instruction that children receive in North Carolina, and what materials and methods are being used to implement instruction. In order to present an overview, let us look at the stated program purpose for music in the public schools in North Carolina. The role of music in the public school curriculum is a vital and very basic one. It serves to sharpen and focus perception, to provide for nonverbal as well as verbal communication and supplies a vehicle for enjoyment and personal expression. Through sharing music from the broad span of history as well as from varied cultures and ethnic groups, students increase awareness of their own relation to the world. In creating music which has not existed before, the student discovers new dimensions and capabili- ties not previously suspected. Beginning in the early years with fundamental experiences in basic elements of music, melody, rhythm, harmony and form, the student becomes aware of an ever-widening spiral of possibilities for developing and interrelating these and other elements into more complex organizations. Through singing, listening, rhythmic, creative and instru- mental experiences, skills, attitudes and concepts begin to develop and accumulate. As confidence is acquired in the varied areas of music, the entire process—the music experience—serves to integrate and develop the student's personality. Ultimately, music in the public school program serves to develop aural literacy. More simply, this is the ability to hear, to know what is heard and what meanings it can have. The pleasure of producing sounds which have meaning to oneself and to others and of receiving those sounds produced by others makes music an attractive element of the curriculum. Whether the individual pursues music as a consumer, performer, creator, teacher or in many other ways, the basic approach to it is provided through the public school program J In March 1977, the State Board of Education approved the Course of Study for Elementary and Secondary Schools K-12 as North Carolina's official Course of Study for Elementary and Secondary Schools K-12 . Raleigh North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction, 1977. program of studies for each of the various subject areas and courses taught in the elementary and secondary schools of the state. Cultural Arts was specifically designated as one of the six areas of study for all elementary children. To accomplish instruction in music at the elemen- tary level, there are many school systems in North Carolina who employ public school and instrumental music teachers. Some systems employ cultural arts directors or music supervisors to work with classroom teachers and they share a joint responsibility in planning and providing music programs. The total responsibility for music instruction in other situations is placed in the hands of the classroom teacher. It is difficult to obtain data about the various arrangements for teaching music, but one survey by the National Education Association provided these data at the national level : The practice reported by . . . about 40 percent (of the schools) was to have the classroom teacher teach music with help from a music specialist .... The elementary-school class- room teacher had to teach music on his/her own in almost as large a percentage of schools in grades 1, 2, and 3, but in grades 4, 5, and 6, the teacher carried the full responsibility for music in less than a third of the schools. Music specialists alone did the teaching in about one-fifth of the schools in grades 4-6, and in 12 to 15 percent of the schools in grades 1-3. Classroom teachers and music specialists differ in their training and assignments and therefore, fill two distinct roles as teachers. The class- room teacher when teaching music can focus on one grade level and one specific group of children, while the music specialist is responsible for one subject area but teaches many children at many different levels. In North Carolina, most public school music teachers meet an average of 850 different children in one week and some meet the children only once every two weeks. In a combination arrangement—classroom teacher and music specialist working together—where there are specific plans and suggestion and readily available resources, the classroom teacher can supplement and/or pro- vide an adequate, if not fully successful, music program. The new basal music texts, Holt, Rinehart and Winston's The Music Book and Silver Burdett's Music , and recordings, purchased by individual units, will be available for use in the classrooms Fall of 1982. There are many supplementary suggestions for ways to use music with other subjects. There is an abundance of splendid listening examples provided on the recordings and accompanying call charts and other materials to help make listening experiences more enjoyable. In this author's estimation, if the classroom teacher continues to serve as a positive role model for children he/she includes some music every day for students. This writer is constantly amazed at the ability and resourcefulness 7 Music and Art in the Public Schools . Research Monograph 1963-M3, Washington, D. C: National Education Association, 1963, p. 12. of classroom teachers and very often is surprised when visiting schools to learn that music is scheduled as a part of each day's activities. Successful teacher training programs prepare classroom teachers so that they can provide children with the kind of musical environment which will stimu- late interest and participation. Music specialists are no longer confined to the piano bench and only one approach to making music through singing. The successful music teacher always has and continues to use music itself as the instructional material. Many teachers in the state of North Carolina have completed Orff Certification and they involve children at an early age as composers in creating their own songs plus movement and instrumental compositions. Some systems have purchased Orff instruments and are continuing to support this method of instruction All successful music programs are based on listening, and this skill continues to be the central focus of general classroom music activities. Children are involved in movement to music in both creative and structured ways. Folk as well as social dancing has become an important part of the music curriculum. The needs of exceptional children are being met through music as more and more music teachers are seeking additional training in order to do a better job to help special children become the best that they are capable of becoming. Positive attitudes towards mainstreaming in music classes are in evidence and handicapped children are participating more often in music activities. There is more attention given to music reading and this is achieved in a variety of ways, including the use of music texts. Audio-visual materials of all varieties and kinds are available through the State Department of Public Instruction, media centers, public libraries and college and university resource centers. Both teacher-made and commercially-produced materials are used to enhance learning. Many live performances by artists-in-residence, college and university ensembles, the North Carolina Symphony, local symphony chamber groups, and others provide unforgettable music experiences for children throughout the state. Preparation for the North Carolina Symphony concerts is the highlight of many music education programs. The printed programs of study and suggestions for teachers provide a specific outline of study that can be used by both music specialists and classroom teachers. This has been and continues to be a special event in the lives of thousands of children in this state. Children are continually presenting performances at the elementary level. There are choral and instrumental concerts, small operettas or spec- ially created musicals, seasonal programs, city and county festivals and other special musical presentations that provide enjoyment for the schools and communities. Where music is a vital and important part of the program, the person ultimately responsible is the principal. His or her attitude is reflected in curriculum decisions of the school and more importantly an attitude of the children and classroom teachers toward music. The music teacher cannot be successful, and is not, in any situation without administrative support and positive relationships with other teachers. Music is alive and healthy in the state of North Carolina. There is still inequity in the music instruction provided for all children. As monies become less available there will be more reliance upon music specialists and classroom teachers working together so that "The Child's Bill of Rights in Music" is never forgotten. Every child has the right to full and free oppor- tunity to explore and develop his capacities in the field of music in such ways as may bring him happiness and a sense of well-being; stimulate his imagination and stir his creative activities; and make him so responsive that he will cherish and seek to renew the fine feelings induced by music. 3 J "The Child's Bill of Rights in Music," as quoted by Peter W. Dykema and Hannah M. Cundiff, School Music Handbook . Boston: C. C. Birchard & Company, 1955, p. 522. 1982-83 CHILDREN'S CONCERT PROGRAM GEORGE FREDERICK HANDEL (1685-1759) "OVERTURE" from MUSIC FOR THE ROYAL FIREWORKS THE COMPOSER: Handel was born the same year as Johann Sebastian Bach in the town of Halle (now East Germany). His father wanted him to become a lawyer, but fate was against it. The boy began to study organ at age seven with the famous organist and composer, Friedrich Wilhelm Zachau, and, at the age of twelve, became Zachau's assistant. By that time he was already a fluent and prolific composer. Handel tried to study law as his father wished, but, after a one-year attempt, he took a job as violinist at the Hamburg Opera. The years from 1702 to 1713 were a period of real growth for Handel. He com- posed while traveling throughout Europe and England. It was in the field of opera that he had his earliest successes, and his fame grew. The English were particularly taken with Handel's music. When his former patron, the Elector of Hanover, became George I of England, Handel decided to settle in that country. In 1727, he became a British subject. When English taste for opera waned, Handel began writing oratorios, and it was in that form that he is still supreme. Handel was always a man of robust physical health, and, despite total blindness after a series of cataract operations, he performed and accompanied his oratorios almost until the day of his death. His influence on English music has been profound, and he lies buried in the Poet's Corner in Westminster Abbey. THE MUSIC : The requirements dictated by the commission of the Music for the Royal Fireworks (see Your North Carolina Symphony Book ) created special problems, but ones that Handel was well equipped to solve. Handel had not only an innate sense of theater which he had put to successful use in opera, but also a wonderful sense of sound. He used these two senses as would an architect to create a massive structure of sound suited for outdoors and matching the grandeur of a fireworks display. Although the fireworks were a dismal failure and the music was lost in all the commotion, the piece was next per- formed as a benefit for a London orphanage, at which time King George II donated two thousand pounds out of respect for the music. This piece is a classic French overture form with a slow, stately dotted-rhythm introduction leading to a spirited allegro . In the original, a eta capo brought back the slow section, but at your concert we will not take the repeat (neither does the recording). The theme of the slow section is: Tom f The theme of the alle g ro is: "ftlVKOCtSp THE CLASSROOM : BY ELAINE SILLS STRATEGY I Write the following terms on the board and duplicate individually: 1. fast 2 . s 1 ow 3. timpani roll - introduction 4. trumpet introduction 5. full orchestra 6. contrast achieved by large and small groups 7. dotted rhythms 8. JUmiDJ motive 9. j. >|j. >j.. nm 10. much use of brass and timpani 11. broad feeling, splendor, grandeur Directions: As the class listens to the music, choose the phrases above that best describe the two sections of the "Overture" (i.e., largo introduction and al legro ) . Have them make headings of "Section A" and "Section B" and list the appropriate numbers. STRATEGY II Use a call chart to help your students follow the music: 1. Timpani roll - beginning of Largo section 2. Full orchestra, fortissimo , theme I 3. Theme I, repeated 4. Contrast between strings and winds with brass and timpani 5. Theme II, winds and strings, piano 6. Contrast with full orchestra, trumpets, horns, and timpani 7. Theme I returns, full orchestra Bridge between two sect ions, ada gio; timpani; definite cadence Section II, allegr o J3 J JJJIJ3 J trumpet motive Dotted rhythms in winds, horns, and strings 11. Sustained sounds in ho rns 12. New rhythmic motive }\ ff~3 JT1|J 13. Full orchestra with ascending and descending melodic line 14. Dotted rhythm, piano 15. Trumpet motive and dotted rhythm 16. Trill in winds and strings signaling ending section 17. Full orchestra with fast ascending and descending passages 18. Definite cadence with ritard STRATEGY III Dramatize a procession climaxing with the crowning of a king or queen. Have the class decide which section of the overture would be more appropriate. Use the royal wedding of 1931 as a model. STRATEGY IV Reproduce the following crossword puzzle for individual completion by your students. Decorate it with fireworks, a picture of Handel, rhythmic patterns used in "Overture etc. Review vocabulary, motives, etc., before giving to students. 9. 10. ACROSS 1. section of orchestra STRATEGY IV (Cont'd.) DOWN 2. Handel 's native country music for a celebration - r ^ Fi rework's filler 3. 4. melodies were 5. end of section or movement 6. Handel used rhythms :< RlAlsls) ^i^i^i y j 1. length of time in music history 7. music played at the beginning 8. a group of pieces to be played together 9. Handel lived here much of his life V \.. • t v.--' m h as E JC Sk- "i-lfc-IDI SETTE E! WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART (1756-1791) EINE KLEIN E NACHTMUSIK, FIRST MOVEMENT THE COMPOSER : to many people Mozart was a ph that was unpara kind and unders only problem wa in a cute packa and a receptive The reason of his music, pleasant to the grows old, and profound nature The circumstances of Mozart's short life have become more familiar than the lives of George Washington and other heroes of the past, enomenal prodigy who revealed a gift and understanding of music lleled in history. He was shown off across Europe by his basically tanding father. He amazed and delighted all whom he met. His s that he grew up. People often ignore genius when it is no longer ge. His entire adult life was a struggle to find a secure position audience. He was ignored even in death and lies in an unmarked grave the memory of him is so alive toda^y is due to the universality To the average listener, Mozart was a writer of light music, ear and comforting to the soul. To the musician, his music never each listening reveals the craftsmanship, good taste, and of Mozart's genius. THE MUSIC : The first movement of Eine kleine Nachtmusik is one of the best known of all Mozart's compositions. It has the flavor of a march and is also a perfect example of a sonata-allegro form. It was composed in 1787 which is the same year that Don Giovanni was written. Mozart calls it a "serenade"which was a form used for lighter music to be played at some festivity, usually at the palace of a nobleman. 10 THE CLASSROOM BY FRAN McCACHERN The first movement of Mozart's charming serenade provides an excellent opportunity for students to study tonal relationships in music, as well as to improve melody bell playing skills. In sonata -allegro form, the movement's first theme is built on the tonic triad, G-B-D. Students, after finding all of the G's, B's, and D's on their melody bells will be able to pick out the melody after hearing it played or sung by the teacher. As an answer to the first two measures, another group of students may pick out the remaining two measures of the phrase, which is built on the pitches, F#, A, and C. First Theme Sffl ETO £ tr-r-t EEf The second theme may easily be played by two groups of students also, It is in the dominant key of D major. Second Theme 7* te j j±^^ftp^±p4±t^L^Ei The d evelopment section, in the key of D major, gives us the first theme based on the pitches D, F#, A and B, D#, F#, A, which may be played by two groups of students. First Theme in D major ?3*Pfei= / Because of melody bell construction, this theme may be rewritten as follows: A yrt^tfrH i^=^ HFct 11 After a short development section, omitting development of the second theme, the recapitulation occurs, presenting both the first and second themes in the original key. Second Theme in D major tfef m ^r^ t. y ^n iM p^^a=mf=^ Because the themes notated above occur in two-measure "questions and answers," children will enjoy playing in two groups. It is recommended that children learn the two-measure segments aurally and by rote first. Melodies can be transferred to notation later. Written for the string section of the orchestra, this serenade provides an excellent opoortunity for the study of those instruments. Students will enjoy playing a string bass part which occurs early in the development section. U- ^^^^M -Jfc F-#F-ff ^fe a ¥ FELIX MENDELSSOHN (1809-1847) SYMPHONY NO. 4 ("ITALIAN"), FOURTH MOVEMENT THE- COMPOSER : Mendelssohn's life had a number of similarities to Mozart's. He was a child prodigy, encouraged in music by a benevolent father. He traveled extensively, had a strong family attachment, and died early. There are strong dissimilarities, too. Mendelssohn's music enjoyed high recognition and acclaim his whole life, and he always lived in comfortable, even affluent, circumstances. His music was seldom profound, and he has been criticized for superficiality. But this is unfair. His music is beautifully crafted and has a remarkable quality of charm and grace. He was a superb melodist, and the lyricism of much of his music is unsurpassed even by Mozart. THE MUSIC : The fourth movement of the "Italian" Symphony gives the symphony its name. Its form is a traditional Italian dance called a saltarello (characterized by a lively hop-step beginning each measure). This symphony took Mendelssohn two years to complete, and he conducted the first performance in Berlin when he was 24. Never satisfied with the work, Mendelssohn worked on revisions of it until his death. The next time it was performed was two years after his death. .: THE CLASSROOM: BY FRAN McCACHERN APPROACH I Several of the rhythms in the symphony will be easily identi- fied by the listeners, especially after learning the rhythm patterns with the following words. J 7 -, p m n, n |T~) P» J 1 / PrPm * * * * » » Sjrn- phj- m. AMeniljiJin ,P/ j 1 m p 7 p 7 ■^yrWj A MwitaJvi cwr* - olio • P? ? J * I n\/ , He J | X J 7 J J | h 11 B » «. jjfcjj,^, MrndtlaW jj^-m 4W w. will W iW „,U h^rl-h ioJ ZR 11 a. \ i r ; Jvm-p)vr\y , Mw dilute jy^cAcy C »*e o*. a. mo dni pj o_y APPROACH II After learning the word sequences, children will enjoy learning body percussion patterns for those rhythms, eventually combining them into the body percussion score found below (see page 13). These parts may be transferred to non-pitched percussion instruments (use hand drums for the k J J I rhythm in measures 6 and 9). MENDELSSOHN PERCUSSION SCORE 13 0UCKJPAT5CM DRUJAi 5TAMP P-Vr w-s — *-. * L L_£ ?fr\ -f — * * — +- -?-U h p / I / -i A JTO 4-J-+ •/— A P IIJ £ -4 — it G-U.\R0 CLAP BLOCKS L ORUJAS STAMP n 1 W- W JV 7 — A P X ffl -y — /- fW _, / y /- " rtmPL£ ,«i 6LOC4C& pmsCH L DRUMS STAMP L, raj ■H / ' ¥ — /— — / / / /- 7 ( t qj m r 4 1 \ t \ * \ / >* y ^ / v — / ««- / 7 ?1 I M- 8USO. . GtuRO <1l_AP If PftTSClJ L ft 6-*-p 4-4 tr /- V 4-4 — £ / ■ / '^b 4 HM P C-LU*6 CLAP TfcmpCi, PAT5CW DRUMS STAMP 14 APPROACH III The "Saltarello" is an Italian courtship folk dance, originally in triple meter. Mendelssohn called this movement "Saltarello" because of the lively quality of the music. The dance has been adapted for performance with the percussion score. Formation: Two circles, girls on inside, facing partners, holding hands. m. 1-4 Eight quick side steps to boys' right. Eight quick side steps back to place. m. 1-4:11 Repeat side steps and back. m. 6-9 Eight Balances (With hands on hips, partners hop on right foot, leaning forward. Then pivot back on left foot, leaning backward. Bodies should rock to and fro. m. 10-18 Boy kneels, claps on strong beats. Girl skips around him twice, flirting. m. 19-22 Eight quick side steps (see above). :m 19-22.il Repeat side steps as danced earlier. 15 SCOTT JOPLIN MAPLE LEAF RAG (1968-1917) THE COMPOSER : Scott Joplin's biography is well covered in "THE CLASSROOM" below, Joplin is one of America's great composers. As with Mozart, it is unfortunate that he did not enjoy the fame he deserved while he was living. Fortunately his music is now receiving wide recognition. THE MUSIC : Joplin composed his rags for piano and later arranged many of them for instruments. We thought it would be instructive for your students to become familiar with the piano version and then hear us play the instrumental one. The form of the Maple Leaf Rag is not unlike a Chopin rondo: Mb: A :c: Each section has sixteen measures. Joplin calls the C and D sections a "trio." Except for the C section in D-flat major, the piece is in A-flat major. THE CLASSROOM : BY SUSAN B. BALOG Scott Joplin's Maple Leaf Rag would rate number one in the top ten of Ragtime. Ragtime is basically piano music, although it can be played by other instruments or even sung. Ragtime grew mostly from legendary black pianists during the late 1800 's. The revival of ragtime was en- couraged by the award winning movie, The Sting , starring Robert Redford and Paul Newman. This movie was a tribute to Scott Joplin's music, and is well deserved. WHAT IS RAGTIME ? Ragtime is a yery sophisticated piano jazz that came from black Americans at the turn of the century. No one knows who first played ragtime, but it has many similarities with banjo technique and certain social dances of the period. The name, ragtime, may come from the "ragged" (syncopated) time. This music has some reputation for being music appro- priate for the honkytonks or "Keystone Kops" silent movies. But for Scott Joplin, it was serious music. There was a dance done by the blacks called a "rag" and the rhythm used in this dance is evident in ragtime. The rag was a clog-like dance done mostly by shuffling while the spectators joined in clapping their hands and stomping their feet. Ragtime is syncopated from the beginning to the end. The left hand (bass part) has a steady march-like rhythm, while the right hand (treble) plays a melody that always has its accents on the weak beat. You can "rag" any piece of music by using this system. SCOTT JOPLIN - SELF MADE MUSICIAN Born in Texarkana, Texas, on November 24, 1868, Scott Joplin grew up in a musical environment. Most of his family played an instrument or sang. Scott became fascinated with the piano. At first, Scott taught himself to 16 play the piano. At the age of 11, he played so well that he gained the attention of an old German music teacher who took him as a pupil. Joplin left home in his early teens to seek his fortune with his musical talent. Scott lived in St. Louis from 1885 to 1893 where he played the piano in local honkytonks. He then moved on to Chicago where he performed during the World's Columbian Exposition. For a brief time, he settled in Sedalia, Missouri where he played the cornet. The following two years he toured with a vocal group he started. Then Scott started writing his own music. Joplin returned to Sedalia, and this was the turning point in his career. He decided to continue his education at the George Smith College, an educational institution for blacks that was sponsored by the Methodist Church. He learned to write musical notation—this is the reason we have his music today. It was there in Sedalia, Missouri that the Maple Leaf Rag was born. Scott was playing in a honkytonk named the Maple Leaf Club. One evening, John Stark, a music publisher came in to listen. Stark was impressed with the music coming from the piano. He strolled back, listened and told Scott, "That 's a good number. Is it yours?" Joplin acknowledged that it was and Stark asked to see him at his store the next day. John Stark paid Scott Joplin fifty dollars for the Maple Leaf Rag and gave Joplin a royalty arrangement. The Maple Leaf Rag sold over a million copies, and they both became financially independent. As a result of this rag, the Maple Leaf Club became a favorite in Sedalia and put it on the map. It is interesting to note that two publishing companies had turned down the Maple Leaf Rag before John Stark heard it. Due to Stark's success, he moved his business to St. Louis and Joplin followed with his new bride., The two men developed a very close relationship, despite the barriers of color and age. Due to the income from royalties, Joplin retired from the honkytonk world of piano playing and settled down to teaching and composing. Joplin composed a folk ballet in 1902 called Rag Time Dance and also a ragtime opera entitled A Guest of Honor . These works were not successful because Joplin was having personal problems--his baby daughter died only a short time after birth. His marriage ended in separation. Scott remarried in 1909, after his first wife's death, and settled in Harlem. There he devoted most of his time to a new opera which he called Treemonisha. This work was performed only once in his lifetime-- this took place in Harlem in 1915. Without scenery, costumes, lighting, or orchestral backing, the drama seemed unconvincing. The result seemed to be a rehearsal. The audience, which included potential backers, walked out. This was a great disappointment to Joplin. He was taken to the Manhattan State Hospital in the fall of 1916--he died there in April of 1917 at the age of 49. In 1976, Joplin was awarded exceptional posthumous recognition by the Pulitizer Prize Committee. 1/ JOPITN'S LIFF TN THF CLASSROOM There are several ways to approach the life of Joplin in the classroom. You may want to choose one of these methods or a combination. I have used each of these methods and students are receptive. One of the most popular methods is a "News Conference." I gave out badges to each student with the names of newspapers, magazines, and media names printed on each with a straight pin. Each student becomes a reporter from these areas. The teacher becomes the famous person--you have to be a good actor/actress and know "who you are" to portray Joplin. The teacher sets the stage: "We are yery fortunate today to welcome the famous Scott Joplin to this press conference. Ladies and gentlemen, you know the format of a press conference, please raise your hand and Mr. Joplin will call on you. Do stand when you are recognized for the benefit of the ladies and gentlemen of the press." Students love to play reporter. There are many thought provoking questions as well as humorous ones. For example: "Mr. Joplin, what do you think about the music of today?" "Mr. Joplin, this sounds strange, but when did you die?" Make sure the teacher (Joplin) calls on the student by their "press" name, (NewYork Times, CBS, Time Magazine, etc.) This helps the students get into the interview. Another method I have found effective is that of obituary column writing. Students need the basic material given to them either on the board, transparency or paper. Students are grouped into teams and write an obituary column together. Mery helpful in this exercise is a copy of a genuine obituary column from your local newspaper so that students can imitate the journalistic style. Creative dramatics is an interesting method of learning the life of a composer. Four or five index cards are used. On each card is written a description of an important event of Joplin's life—covering childhood on. Students are divided into groups and make up their own dialogue. At the end of class, each group presents its own interpretation of the event. A few minor props can help the students 1 ose their inhibitions. TEACHING IDEAS : 1. The form of ragtime is simple. I have had success teaching with the use of art. Use a symbol for each theme--it can be a tree, ball, etc. Help students by going through the piece while you draw on the board with colored chalk. Stress each theme has a visual symbol. Students then draw their own. 2. Dance can help illustrate the rhythm and form of the Maple Leaf Rag . I visualize three groups of students--! for the introduction, theme 1 and theme 2. Each group starts and ends from a seated position. I would incorporate minstrel show actions from a seated position to the rag dance with clog like shuffle steps. You could also illustrate the two rhythms used in ragtime through movement. One group can represent the um-pah bass rhythm and the other could show the right hand syncopated rhythms IS 3. Use a percussion score to help students learn about the M aple Leaf Rag . Make your own according to the level of your students. The easiest method is a percussion score drawn on a transparency used with an over- head projector. You can emphasize the bass rhythm or use even rhythm against the syncopated melody in the treble. Keep your score simple and use repeat signs. It will look less foreboding to your students. You can use percussion instruments (variety) or I would recommend rhythm sticks. Dowel rods can be cut for inexpensive drum sticks and fit small hands better than the expensive genuine sort. 4. Make your own play about the life of Scott Joplin or more specifically about the Maple Leaf Club in Sedalia. Make sure to include the recording of the Maple Leaf Rag in your skit. (Characters: Scott Joplin, John Stark, customers, dancers, waitresses, bartender-night club scene, etc. SERGEI PROKOFIEV "TROIKA" from LIEUTENANT KIJE^SUITE (1891-1953) THE COMPOSER : Sergei Prokofiev was born in the rural town of Sontzovka, Russia. He showed an early aptitude for piano and composition and was trained by his mother who was an excellent amateur pianist. At age 12 he went to study with Reinhold Gliere in Moscow and at 13 entered the St. Petersburg Conservatory where he studied with Rimsky-Korsakov and Liadov. He received prizes in both piano and composition. During the revolution, Prokofiev came to America but finally settled in Paris in 1920. He remained there until 1932, when he returned to Russia. Although he received some criticism for his "decadent" and "modernistic" musical practices from the Russian authorities, his overall status, poiitica 1 and artistic, remained quite high. When he died of a cerebral hemorrhage in 1953, he was already universally accepted as one of the great composers of the 20th century. THE MUSIC : Prokofiev's style can be described by five primary characteristics: 1. It follows classical form and style. 2. It is innovative in its harmonic idiom, melodic inflection, and orchestration. 3. It possesses a motor ele- ment that produces drive and rhythmic intensity. 4. It has an elegant and re- fined melodic lyricism. 5. It often demonstrates a grotesque quality character- ized by mockery or satire. All of these elements can be seen in "Troika." It is a classical song form with very singable, lyri c melodies, and a driving, sleigh-ride rhythm that propels it. It contains Prokofiev's quick shifts from major to minor and from key to key and yery original use of trombones and bassoons on the melodies. The satire is definitely inherent in the plot (see Your North Carolina Symphony Book ) , and this quality is stressed by the music. THE CLASSROOM : BY SUSAN MARION "Troika" is a sleighride sequence complete with bells and a tavern song from Lieutenant Kije Suite by Prokofiev, with a theme that is easily recognizable, a lively tempo and a humorous story behind it; "Troika" is especially appropriate for a children's concert. It easily lends itself to language arts, art, and 19 social studies correlation. The following ideas may be helpful in intro- ducing your students to the music itself. I. Getting Inside the Music It might be fun for your students to make a "roadmap" of the music-- not necessarily an exact analysis of the form, but something that will point out the theme, solos and highlights of the piece. For instance, select some type of colored shape or symbol to represent the parts listed below. OA Bassoon solo f 1 Trombone Theme / \/ \ Trombones echo / Solo bassoons — ' Introduction A — » 1 Theme with /?) f) /£) Strings and Coda V. ^ Piccolo ^V^/^y^J (pizzicato section) Listen carefully to the music. Place shapes on construction paper like a winding road when sections represented occur in the music. Your finished product might look like this: a o With your "road map" as a visual aid, it will be easy for students to follow the music and recognize the various "landmarks." II. Taking the Melody Home The primary theme of "Troika" is one that students may well be humming or whistling as they leave the concert hall. The melody is quite singable and not too difficult to learn to play on melodic classroom instruments such as melody bells, xylophones, glockenspiels, recorders, etc. If students are given a chance to learn to play it or even a phrase or two, they will long Zl remember it. All students can be involved in the process—some playing the melody, others an accompaniment on barred instruments or rhythm instruments. The melody can be more easily learned by dividing it into the fol lowing phrases : tW^m-^- mm J )(^ u p ^ \ \) This is, of course, the way it is divided in the orchestral score as it bounces back and forth from one group of instruments to another in the introduction. One of the following ideas may fit the abilities of your students: 1) Top students or those with band or piano experience can possibly learn to play the melody in its entirety, or you can assign certain phrases to them. 2) Assign one phrase to each of four groups of students (three or four or more in each group) . 3) Divide the class into four groups (if there are enough instruments to go around), and assign ewery group a phrase to learn. 4) If learning to play the melody is too difficult or you are working with younger children, let them sing it on "la" or make up words to fit the music. You can play an accompaniment on the piano or try one of these below: Accompaniments 1. For barred instruments: §P i XX ^p i XT m $ m a ZX m ? ^ XX m w Si g Glockenspiels may play chord clusters at random or single notes in rapid succession to imitate the falling snow. 21 2. Autoharps Strum the following chord progression: are balalaikas) (You can pretend the autoharps 4> c C o F o c $7 o 3. Rhythm Instruments *M A ^L *AkMr 7^ 7^ XLUJ * T^ *v 7^ afi c l 5^ 7 l£ v^ x 7^ nr -w- rr rrr This may be used alone or with either of the other accompaniments After learning the melody and one or more of the accompaniments might try your piece in rondo form. Here are some suggestions for sections A, B, C, and D. A -- Melody (sung or played) with melodic accompaniment B -- Rhythmic accompaniment alone C -- Play a counter-melody on bells or xylophone or try a few bars of "Jingle Bells" D -- Movement, a simple dance, or glockenspiels playing chord clusters to represent the falling snow. you The possibilities for your production are endless, would make a yery showy addition to a PTA program, III. An Extension Your polished version Introducing "Troika" to your students provides an excellent opportunity to discuss the Russian climate and why so many Russian composers have written "sleighride" pieces at some point in their careers. Composers, authors, poets, artists write or paint what they know best. They draw from their childhood experiences, native cultures, travels, etc., and make us see what they saw, feel what they felt. Have your students listen to "Troika" with this in mind and try to follow the merry wedding party as it winds its way through the snow-covered countryside, stopping at a tavern along the way for warmth, rest and revelry. As an extension, you might guide your students in creating "sound pieces' from their own experiences. Body percussion, rhythm or melodic instruments, or anything that would make an appropriate sound could be used to depict: "The Beach," "The Bus Ride Home," "Spring," "A Stormy Night," "A Quiet Night, 1 "A Fish in a Stream," "The Trip to Mars," etc. These pieces may be scored :: using symbols or notation created by the students. Creating, organizing and producing a piece of their own will give students a taste of what composing is all about. "LES TOREADORES" AND "DANSE BOHEME" from CARMEN SUITES I & II GEORGES BIZET (1838-1875) THE COMPOSER : Like Prokofiev, Bizet received his earliest musical training at home. His father was a singer and his mother a pianist. Georges entered the Paris Conservatory at the age of nine and took prizes in piano, organ, and composition. In 1857 he won a Prix de Rome and spent two years composing there. Bizet was primarily an opera composer who was only moderately successful in achieving public acclaim during his lifetime. Fortunately, Bizet lived to see Carmen produced in Paris, and, though there was controversy over what was then considered to be lurid subject matter, it was recognized as a master- piece. The opera was premiered in March of 1875, and Bizet died the following June. THE MUSIC : The music from Carmen is perhaps some of the most popular of all time. It has been used as the sound track of films and can even be heard occasionally on Muzak in shopping centers. "Les Toreadores" is the overture to the opera and is a simple ternary form (ABA). It has two primary themes: Theme I snzi/vjg^ p "Danse Bo heme" (Bohemian Dance) comes from the ballet in the tavern scene in Act II. It is constructed on three themes: Theme I 23 THE CLASSROOM : BY MARILYN BURRIS General Objectives : 1 . Prepare students for total enjoyment of the performance. 2. Introduce students to two pieces from the Carmen Suites . 3. Introduce students to opera. Specific Objectives : 1. Recognize "families" of instruments and individual instruments by sound. 2. Recognize musical themes and ideas from these pieces (phrasing and form). 3. Learn the conductor's patterns for 2/4, 3/4 4. Learn appropriate dance movements for the two pieces. Materials Needed : 1. Recordings of the Carmen Suites , Nos. 1 and 2 2. The Metropolitan Opera Box, "The Story of Carmen " (Order from Silver Burdette; consult catalogue for cost, around $30.00) 3. Posters of Spain, Mexico, showing toreadors, bullfight scenes, gypsies, etc. (from travel agencies or other sources.) 4. Simple props and "costumes" appropriate for bullfight and gypsy dances (brightly colored sashes, scarves, jewelry, especially earrings; toreador hats, swords, large red cloth, sixteen flag sticks, sixteen brightly colored rectangles of material; castanets, tambourines, triangles, finger cymbals, cymbals.) Lesson Plan #1 . Listening: "Les Tore'adors'^ Parade of the Toreadors; used as Introduction to Act I of the opera, Carmen .) 1. Listen the first time without an elaborate introduction. Tell the children just enough to identify the pieces, i.e., it is from an opera called Carmen ; name of composer; identify opera ; in the opera there is a bullfight, etc. 2. After listening, talk to the children about bull fighting . Ask them to draw pictures and/or bring in a report about toreros , picadors , bandilleros . chulos , alguazils . Reassure the children that though bullfighting is now considered by some to be a cruel sport, it was popular in Spain when Carmen was written. We do not allow it in this country. 3. Draw the conductor's pattern for 2/4. Practice it with the children. 4. Tell them this time when they listen to imagine a huge open arena, like a modern football field. Through one great entrance comes a parade of 50 or more men on foot and horseback. They are dressed in brightly colored costumes with beautiful hats, all glittering with gold and silver. They march around greeting the crowd before the battle with the bull. 5. Listen the second time and conduct in 2/4; teacher with back to class, class standing and all conducting together. I believe you will find the students think it is a "neat" thing to do. 6. Listen the third time and use an instrument chart: Theme I (A) Tutti Repeat Theme II (B) Woodwinds and strings (short) (Listen for triangle) Big Crescendo Theme I (A) Tutti Theme III (C) Strings (legato melody with staccato accomp.) Woodwinds Big Crescendo, ascending scale, more instruments added. Theme I (A) Tutti Ends with great flourish. Lesson Plan #2 : Movement: "Les Toreadors" Flag Drill (See materials) This can be used for a class session, but you must have sufficient space (gym or cafeteria). Good to use for a program. Choose two groups (A & B; I & II; Toreros and Picadors , etc.) Line up to come from opposite sides of work space, carrying flags, meet in middle, upstage. Theme I (A) : 1. Both groups wait 8 counts 2. Move down center stage side by side 8 steps . 3. Group A turn R, go round R side of "arena" ■,,- . Group B turn L, go round L side of "arena" s e P s 4. On repeat, each group walks around the stage back semi-circle, passes each other, and ends on opposite side of stage from start. 16 steps 5. Groups meet in center front, turn, go back up center stage and stop, facing side stage with flags held out front. 16 steps Theme 11(B) 1 . Lower , raise flags once per measure. 8 times - turn front on 8. 2. Face front, wave flags side to side overhead once per measure, 8 times . 3. Lower flags, wait 4 fast counts (two measures, listen for trill) Theme I (A): 1. Raise flags overhead, hold 8 counts , turn to face back stage on 8. 2. Holding flags high, groups walk around "arena" again. Pass in front (downstage), all come back to form semi-circle around back of room or stage. Each group now on side where they began, 16 steps and 8 steps . 25 Theme III (C) 1. Bull comes out. "Star" Tore'ro or Toreador comes to do battle. Action here should be free movement between two principals. 2. Flag bearers stand in semi-circle. Count to J_5 when main melody begins and yell " Ole " on 16th count. A total of 6 Pie's . 3. After last Ole" , bull and toreador go to leaders of groups. Theme I (A) Return (Signal: Listen for tutti and crescendo .) 1. Bull goes to leader of one group, Toreador to other. Leads lines down middle, waving flags right and left. 8 steps . 2. Groups A turns R, Groups B turns L walk all the way around 8 steps . 3. Pass in back of stage, leaders walk around and down to front and stop, 16 steps . 4. Last trill ( 4 counts ) bull and torero come to center, raise arms in victory on last chord. 5. All shout, " Ole' !" and flags are raised high overhead on last chord. DANSE BOHEME The general and specific objectives are the same for this piece as for'les Toreadors." Procedure will be similar with some minor changes appropriate to gypsy theme. Materials are listed above. Lesson Plan #3 Listening: "Danse Boheme "(Gypsy Dance) 1. Listen the first time with a smiliar short introduction. Identify the term orchestral suite . Tell where this gypsy dance comes in the opera (Carmen and her friend are entertaining soldiers in a smokey inn in the mountains.) Tell them Bizet took many musical ideas from the opera and arranged them into this suite, with no singing. 2. As you listen, identify solo instruments and families of instruments. 3. Talk about gypsies. Ask children to do reports and drawings. Display them as they are delivered to you later. 4. Draw conductor's pattern for 3/4. 5. Practice it with the children 6. Listen and conduct in 3/4 (see #5 in Lesson Plan #1) 7. Use an instrument chart: Theme I (A): Flutes, pizzicato strings Listen for sequences and key changes (demonstrate) Listen for syncopation (last 4 measures of theme statement) Interlude 6 measures, contrasting dynamics ff, pp, ff, pp 26 Theme II (B): Oboe Solo (Section I of Theme II) Clarinet Solo (Section II of Theme II) All Woodwinds Tutti Tutti ( Animato ) very fast (Section II) Trumpet Solo (Section I) Tutti ( piu mosso) fast and ff (Section II) Theme I (A): Tutti ; ( Presto ) very, very fast 8. Use "A Gypsy Dance" (Aerobic Movement) Lesson Plan #4 : Introduction to Opera Use the Metropolitan Opera Box, "The Story of Carmen ." This excellent source for introducing children to opera includes a filmstrip, cassette or recording of opera excerpts sung by singers at the Met, and master copy activity sheets, posters, etc. It would be best to have listened to the two pieces above before using this source. Perhaps the sequence of events could be: 1. Listen to"Les Tore'adors"and"Danse Boheme"in one class period. 2. Use the Met Box next class period. 3. If you can spend more time, use one of the movement activities given in other lesson plans at another class period. Conclusion There is so much to do and so little time in which to do it. That is the lament of all music teachers. We see our children so seldom. My tendency is to over-plan, hoping I might squeeze in a little more and a little more. The suggestions above have been made to aid you in whatever situation (predic- ament) you might find yourself. There is more that can be done with both these pieces,* but there will be more than two numbers on the symphony program. The most important thing is that the children LISTEN to the music and that we help them understand what they are hearing; that they know something of the opera; that they ENJOY listening. The music of this opera is incredibly beautiful. They will not be able to sit still for long as they listen to these two numbers! I hope the ideas and activities here will help you channel their energy and heighten their interest in great music. *(1) A percussion score , especially for'Les Toreadors" would be an excellent teaching aid. Boosey and Hawkes piano-vocal score of Carmen contains the same music (No. of Meas.) as the orchestral score. A percussion score could easily be made from this. *(2) A puppet show of either one of both the pieces would also heighten interest. The choreography is not too important. Children love to look at puppets bouncing to music and they like to "work" the puppets. Let them use their imagination for moving the puppets. Get parents to help you with the puppets. Have them made and ready for use when you teach the class on these two numbers--if you use the idea. If you have one of those special classroom teachers who would let her children do puppets as an art project, that would be great! 27 THE SONGS AND RHYTHM SCORE The two songs on this year's program are "The Old North State" and "It's a Small World." "The Old North State" is also the song for children to play at the concert. The rhythm score is based on the "Troika" from Lieutenant Kije" Suite . The tune of "The Old North State" is originally from Switzerland. In 1835 a group of Swiss bell-ringers toured the United States and gave a performance in Raleigh. State Supreme Court Justice William Gaston particularly liked one of their songs and wrote three patriotic verses to it. The song be- came popular, and its use gradually spread over the state. In 1926, Mrs. E. E. Randolph, music chairman of the Raleigh Woman's Club, made a de- tailed study of the song which led to its adoption by that year's General Assembly as the official State song. The instructions for the instrumental group are in Your North Carolin a Symphony Book . A suggestion of instruments is listed which is not intended to be exhaustive. We particularly want to encourage young string players and hope they will be included, if there are some in your community. Be sure to have the instrumentalists memorize their music so that they can keep their heads up and watch the conductor. (The words to both the songs should be memorized.) "It's a Small World" was written for the UNICEF exhibition at the 1964-65 World's Fair which was built by Walt Disney Productions. Disney wanted a song that conveyed the message of universal human understanding, and "It's a Small World" is probably the most popular of all Disney songs. It has been recorded in countless languages and sung by major entertainers all over the world. Associate Conductor Jim Ogle has provided a rhythm score for the "Troika." We hope that it will be useful in your classroom and provide some playing exper- ience and opportunity to discuss meter, instrumentation, conducting, etc. Try it with and without the recording. BIOGRAPHIES BARBARA BAIR is chairman of instruction of undergraduate music education at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro and is associate professor of music education. She holds a bachelor's degree from Ohio State University and a master's degree in music education from UNC-G. She is chairman of the Exceptional Educa- tion Committee of the North Carolina Music Educators Association. ELAINE SILLS received both her undergraduate and master's degrees from UNC-G. She joined the Moore County Schools in 1970 and teaches junior high chorus and elementary general music. She was a recent nominee for Moore County "Teacher of the Year." She has written for the North Carolina Symphony before in "Suggestions for Music Teachers" published last season. DR. FRAN McCACHERN is an assistant professor of music at Meredith College in Raleigh. She teaches courses in elementary methods, secondary methods and music appreciation. She also directs the Meredith Chorale. :s SUSAN B. BALOG is a native Tar Heel. She received both undergraduate and graduate degrees from UNC-G and teaches 7th and 8th grade music at Turrentine Middle School in Burlington. She has taught general music and chorus for nine years, held church positions, and teaches voice and piano privately. SUSAN MARION lives in Chapel Hill. She was graduated from Appalachian State University with majors in music education and in early childhood education. Her teaching experience includes six years as a music teacher in Wake County and at Durham Academy in Durham. She has been active in the Central Carolina Chapter of the American Orff-Schulwerk Society. MARILYN BURRIS earned a bachelor's degree in voice from Meredith College, a master of music degree in voice from the Manhattan School of Music and has done post-graduate study in voice and opera at UNC. She currently teaches general music in the Alamance County Schools and has taught in Durham County and Charleston, S. C. She has sung many operatic roles and solo recitals and was chosen "National Singer of the Year" by the National Association of Teachers of Singing. JACKSON PARKHURST is director of education of the North Carolina Symphony and assistant conductor. He received his bachelor's degree from Duke University and a master's degree in orchestral conducting from Manhattan School of Music. He has also attended the Juilliard School and studied musicology at UNC. NOTES Copies of Your North Carolina Symphony Book , Teachers Handbook , and recordings of the music on this year's program can be purchased from the Symphony office. The recordings are: Music for the Royal Fireworks Seraphim S-60276 Eine kleine Nachtmusik CMS-Summit 1077 " Italian " Symphony Vanguard-161 Maple Leaf Rag Nonesuch 71248 Lieutenant Kije' Suite Vanguard S-174 Carmen Suites I & II CMS-Summit 1011 Please place your orders early enough to allow two weeks for delivery. We recommend that each child own his own copy of Your North Carolina Symphony Book. Be sure to check other sources such as your school and local libraries for additional information on this year's program. "It's a Small World" can be found in the new Holt, Rinehart and Winston The Music Book , "Teacher's Edition III." In addition to general materials on orchestral music, Jam Handy has filmstrips on Mozart, Handel, and Mendelssohn. The Metropolitan Opera Carmen set from Silver Burdett has already been mentioned. Also, be sure to check the resources of the State Department of Public Instruction. The North Carolina Symphony wishes to thank the music educators who wrote for this publication for their cooperation and enthusiasm. The North Carolina Symphony welcomes and encourages your comments. Address all correspondence to: Jackson Parkhurst, Director of Education and Assistant Conductor, North Carolina Symphony, P. 0. Box 28026, Raleigh, N. C. 27611. (919) 733-2750.